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Referencing


Different styles of referencing

There are many different referencing styles available. Queen Margaret University has developed a guide to provide staff and students with a common referencing style called Write and Cite: the QMU guide to the British Standard Harvard 2010 system of referencing.

The following presentation demonstrates some of the main changes you can expect with British Standard Harvard 2010 from other Harvard versions.


*Be careful*
Some subject areas follow a different referencing style - such as our Psychology department who use the APA referencing style - so it is essential you follow the guidelines in your course handbook.

This web page provides some examples of how to reference the most common sources of information from the:

Write and Cite: the QMU Guide to the British Standard Harvard 2010 System of Referencing

APA Referencing style from the American Psychological Association


How do I include references and quotations in my assignment?

There are two key aspects to referencing in BS Harvard 2010 and APA:

  • citing a reference

You cite a reference when you refer in the text of your assignment to any use you have made of the work of others.

  • creating a reference list

A reference list is an alphabetical list by author, which you provide at the end of your work. It must contain full details of all the sources you have cited in your text. If you cite something in the text and do not include it in the reference list this is considered plagiarism. It is important that the references you cite within your writing link accurately to the reference list at the end of your work, via the name of the author.

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How to compile your reference list

A reference list must be included at the end of your assignment, before any appendices (if you have any). A reference list in BS Harvard 2010 and APA is an alphabetical list, organised by the surname (family name) of the author. Only those works you have cited in your text should appear in your reference list.

The first two elements of each reference in your reference list (author and date) will appear in the text of your work. The reader of your work can then easily check the citation in your text against your reference list.

Your reference list may include references to materials in different formats, including print and online resources. Generally all references require similar elements. Consistency is the key - always try to find an author or editor, a date of publication, a title and/or a source title and a publisher.

Correct and consistent punctuation is important:

  • the first word in the title of the books, chapters and journal articles starts with a capital letter

  • authors' names and initials, journal titles, publishers' names and places should also start with a capital letter

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Write and Cite: the QMU Guide to the British Standard Harvard 2010 System of Referencing

The comprehensive guide to citing sources of information from print through to electronic, including lectures, images, conferences, audio visual and much more is available here and can also be purchased from the LRC Service Desk for £2.00.

Here are some of the most popular:

How to reference books
How to reference a chapter
How to reference an ebook
How to reference a journal article
How to reference an online document
How to reference a website

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APA Referencing style from the American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association produces it's own guides. Notably:

There is a basic guide QMU Guide to the APA style of referencing in the Write and Cite format available here and can also be purchased from the LRC Service Desk for £2.00.

The APA Style Blog is the official companion to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association and is another valuable source where you can browse or find the answer to a specific query. Here are links to some of the more popular reference types:


How to reference books in APA style
How to reference a book chapter in APA style
How to reference an ebook using APA style
How to reference a journal article in APA style
How to reference an online document in APA style
How to reference a website in APA style

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Interactive tutorials

The University of Sheffield have made available a set of interactive tutorials to help dyslexic students with reading, writing and acknowledging sources:

RefWorks

RefWorks is a web-based bibliographic tool that can help you keep track of the references that you will find and use as part of your studies and research. References can be exported directly from databases such as Medline and Scopus, imported from text files as well as added manually.

Support materials

RefWorks have created a variety of resources to help you get the most out of managing your references that includes:

QMU RefWorks Wiki

RefWorks Reference Templates for QMU Harvard

Technical issues

Some users may experience difficulty exporting from Scopus to RefWorks. We suggest that users are not logged into RefWorks before following these instructions:

  1. Conduct your search and mark your records.
  2. Click on the Add to My List button.
  3. Go to My List and mark All before clicking on Export.
  4. Select RefWorks direct export as the export format.
  5. Select the citation format you prefer. For the most complete record, RefWorks recommend selecting Complete format as your citation format.
  6. Click the Export button.
  7. Log in to RefWorks.
  8. Your records should appear in the Last Imported folder.

Using RefWorks with Microsoft Word

Whilst we wait for the new RefWorks Write N Cite feature to be updated, we're using Write N Cite version III. Find the shortcut on the start menu of QMU desktop.

Online help for Write N Cite III for Windows - from RefWorks

Online help for editing citations in Word with Write N Cite III - from RefWorks

Using Write N Cite III to manage citations and create bibliographies in Microsoft Word - RefWorks YouTube video

 


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